The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid is an endocrine gland in the throat, and consists of two linked lobes. It is found at the front of the neck, below the Adam’s apple. The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones, which influence the metabolic rate, protein synthesis, and have a wide range of other effects, including on improvement. The thyroid hormones T3 and T4 are synthesized from tyrosine and iodine. The thyroid also produces calciton in, which plays a main role in calcium homeostasis.
Hormonal output from the thyroid is regulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secreted from the anterior pituitary, which itself is regulated by thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) created by the hypothalamus.
Through the hormones it produces, the thyroid gland influences nearly all of the metabolic processes in your body. Thyroid disorders can range from a small, safe goiter (enlarged gland) that needs no treatment to life-threatening cancer. The most general thyroid problems involve abnormal production of thyroid hormones. Too much thyroid hormone results in a situation known as hyperthyroidism. Insufficient hormone creation leads to hypothyroidism.
Although the effects can be unpleasant or uncomfortable, most thyroid problems can be managed well if properly diagnosed and treated.
All types of hyperthyroidism are due to an overproduction of thyroid hormones, but the situation can occur in several ways:
Hypothyroidism poses a special risk to newborns and infants. A lack of thyroid hormones in the system at an early age can lead to the improvement of cretinism (mental retardation) and dwarfism (stunted growth). Most infants now have their thyroid levels checked routinely soon after birth. If they are hypothyroid, treatment starts immediately.
In infants, as in adults, hypothyroidism can be due to these causes:
Your thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland found at the base of your neck, just below your Adam’s apple. This gland makes thyroid hormone that travels in your blood to all parts of your body. The thyroid hormone controls your body’s metabolism in many ways, including how fast you burn calories and how fast your heart beats.
Hypothyroidism is treated with medicine that gives your body the thyroid hormone it needs to work normally. The most common medicines are man-made forms of the hormone that your thyroid makes. You will likely need to take thyroid hormone pills for the rest of your life. When you take the pills as your doctor tells you to, the pills are very safe.